Spectral Reflectance and Water Content in the Wasatch Plateau Experiment
We chose to collaborate with Brigham Young University in an experiment on the Wasatch Plateau in 2009 because a scientist friend of ours had been working in that area the previous five years, and he noticed there were big grazing responses. The plants growing in the long-term grazed areas were all drought tolerant, while ungrazed plots had plants that were often found only in wetter areas. The only difference was the fence that kept sheep on one side and not on the other. The big question was: how does water influence plants in this ecosystem that we understand relatively well? The story had always been the influence of grazers, when in fact, maybe the indirect consequence of grazing was mediated by water.
METER donated some sensors in order to set up an experiment where we changed the amount of water in various plots of land. We had rain exclusion plots, and we had treatments where we collected all incoming rainfall and reapplied it either once a week or every three weeks. This allowed us to say to what extent this system was controlled by water during the growing season. To do this, we took measurements with our prototype NDVI Spectral Reflectance Sensor to measure canopy greenness. We also used our prototype volumetric water content sensors to measure soil moisture (this was a few years ago and the sensors were prototypes at the time). Using these sensors, we found that water is critical in a system people have dismissed as being climate-controlled because it’s at the top of a mountain.
It turns out the amount and timing of precipitation makes a big difference. We were able to directly connect plant survival, not just to the grazing treatment, but to the actual amount of water that was in the soil. Also, using continuous NDVI data, we were able to look closely at the role of grazing on plant canopies. When we looked at our NDVI data, we were able to see a seasonal signal, not just a single snapshot sample in time. So by having the richer data from the data loggers, we obtained a more nuanced understanding of the impact of land use on these important ecological processes.
One of the mistakes we made was failure to include redundancy in the system. We only had two replicates, so when one of them went down we ended up having just one little case study. However, that mistake gave us new ideas on how to set up a better system using the right sensors for the job, and it generated a new idea on how to get real-time analysis of data. In our new Desert FMP project, we have a much better-replicated system where more is invested in the number of sensors that we’re putting out. Each treatment combination will have five to ten water potential sensors. We are also developing a system where we can analyze data in real-time, so this time we will know when a sensor goes out if a student accidentally kicks it.
For more details on the Wasatch Plateau Experiment, watch for our published paper that we’ll link to when it comes out.
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